Selasa, 14 Juni 2016



Discourse analysis is a broad term for the study of the ways in which language is used in texts and contexts. Also called discourse studies.

Wikipedia: “a general term for a number of

approaches to analyzing written, spoken, signed

language use or any significant semiotic event.

Discourse analysis is sometimes defined as the analysis of language 'beyond the sentence'. This 
contrasts with types of analysis more typical of modern linguistics, which are chiefly concerned with the study of grammar: the study of smaller bits of language, such as sounds (phonetics and phonology), parts of words (morphology), meaning (semantics), and the order of words in sentences (syntax). Discourse analysts study larger chunks of language as they flow together.
Deborah Tannen

(From Linguistic Society of America web)

From all definition above, I conclude that ‘Discourse Aanalysis’ is a term off study to analyze written,spoken, signed language use or any significiant semiotic event. Discourse Analysis is closely related to text linguistics.

The essential difference between discourse analysis and text linguistics is that discourse analysis aims to revealing socio-psychological characteristic of a person rather than text  structure.


The analysis of discourse frequently defined as “ language use above the level of the sentence” (Stubbs, 1993) – Provides you with the opportunity to study the meaningful production and interpretation of texts and talk. Miller (2002) explains in his article on the subject of discourse analysis, the examination of texts problematics traditional word-class classification and sheds new light on the functions and workings of grammatical categories (tense,mood, and aspect, for example). Indeed, the study of the structure and texture of texts as whole units challenges the very concept of ‘sentencce’ and, by adding to other approaches to language study, enriches students’ understanding of how language works.

Through the study of discourse analysis, you may gain an advanced and sophisticated understanding of the concept of ‘context’, also defined or described as the study of ‘language in context’ or (real life) ‘language in use’ (Brown and yule 1983 woods 2006), discourse analysis draws you to the investigation of how, in social interaction, human beings convey their meaning not as an individualistic enterprise but as a result of dynamic and ongoing negotiation with their interlocutors. In this way, you gain knowledge and understanding of the (symbolic) function of language in social life, and the role that language plays in the construction and shaping of social relationships. Since such relationships are frequently characterisedby differential patterns of authorityand influence, you have the opportunity to explore how power relations underpin the construction and meaning of discourse. Experience shows that students are particularly drawn to this type of critical discourse analysis and there is a wealth of data that can be drawn upon to teach and encourage this interest. While various forms of political discourse provide archetypal material, example, medical interviews, courtroom testimonies and classroom contexts also offer germane discourse data foe critical analysis.

Discourse and Frames

'Reframing' is a way to talk about going back and re-interpreting the meaning of the first sentence. Frame analysis is a type of discourse analysis that asks, What activity are speakers engaged in when they say this? What do they think they are doing by talking in this way at this time? Consider how hard it is to make sense of what you are hearing or reading if you don't know who's talking or what the general topic is. When you read a newspaper, you need to know whether you are reading a news story, an editorial, or an advertisement in order to properly interpret the text you are reading. 


Conversation is an enterprise in which one person speaks, and another listens. Discourse analysts who study conversation note that speakers have systems to determine when one person's turn is over and the next person's turn begins. This exchange of turns or 'floors' is signaled by such linguistic means as intonation, pausing, and phrasing. Some people await a clear pause before beginning to speak, but others assume that 'winding down' is an invitation to someone else to take the floor. When speakers have different assumptions about how turn exchanges are signaled, they may inadvertently interrupt or feel interrupted. On the other hand, speakers also frequently take the floor even though they know the other speaker has not invited them to do so.
Listenership too may be signaled in different ways. Some people expect frequent nodding as well as listener feedback such as 'mhm', 'uhuh', and 'yeah'. Less of this than you expect can create the impression that someone is not listening; more than you expect can give the impression that you are being rushed along. 

Discourse Markers

'Discourse markers' is the term linguists give to the little words like 'well', 'oh', 'but', and 'and' that break our speech up into parts and show the relation between parts. 'Oh' prepares the hearer for a surprising or just-remembered item, and 'but' indicates that sentence to follow is in opposition to the one before. However, these markers don't necessarily mean what the dictionary says they mean. Some people use 'and' just to start a new thought, and some people put 'but' at the end of their sentences, as a way of trailing off gently. Realizing that these words can function as discourse markers is important to prevent the frustration that can be experienced if you expect every word to have its dictionary meaning every time it's used.

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